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The University of London introduced the DSc in , but as an advanced study course, following on directly from the BSc, rather than a research degree. The first higher doctorate in the modern sense was Durham University 's DSc, introduced in These were, however, very advanced degrees, rather than research-training degrees at the PhD level— Harold Jeffreys said that getting a Cambridge ScD was "more or less equivalent to being proposed for the Royal Society".
Finally, in , the current PhD degree was introduced, along the lines of the American and German model, and quickly became popular with both British and foreign students. In the English but not the Scottish universities, the Faculty of Arts had become dominant by the early 19th century.
Indeed, the higher faculties had largely atrophied, since medical training had shifted to teaching hospitals,  the legal training for the common law system was provided by the Inns of Court with some minor exceptions, see Doctors' Commons , and few students undertook formal study in theology. The reforms at the Humboldt University transformed the Faculty of Philosophy or Arts and its more recent successors such as the Faculty of Sciences from a lower faculty into one on a par with the Faculties of Law and Medicine.
Similar developments occurred in many other continental European universities, and at least until reforms in the early 21st century many European countries e. Until the midth century, advanced degrees were not a criterion for professorships at most colleges. That began to change as the more ambitious scholars at major schools went to Germany for 1 to 3 years to obtain a PhD in the sciences or humanities. Major shifts toward graduate education were foretold by the opening of Clark University in which offered only graduate programs and the Johns Hopkins University which focused on its PhD program.
By the s, Harvard, Columbia, Michigan and Wisconsin were building major graduate programs, whose alumni were hired by new research universities. By , PhDs were awarded annually, most of them by six universities. It was no longer necessary to study in Germany. At the start of the 20th century, U.
The lack of centralised authority meant anyone could start a university and award PhDs. In Germany, the national government funded the universities and the research programs of the leading professors. It was impossible for professors who were not approved by Berlin to train graduate students. In the United States, by contrast, private universities and state universities alike were independent of the federal government.
Independence was high, but funding was low.
Doctoral Symposium | BSC-CNS
The breakthrough came from private foundations, which began regularly supporting research in science and history; large corporations sometimes supported engineering programs. The postdoctoral fellowship was established by the Rockefeller Foundation in Meanwhile, the leading universities, in cooperation with the learned societies, set up a network of scholarly journals. After World War II, state universities across the country expanded greatly in undergraduate enrollment, and eagerly added research programs leading to masters or doctorate degrees.
Their graduate faculties had to have a suitable record of publication and research grants. Late in the 20th century, "publish or perish" became increasingly important in colleges and smaller universities.
Detailed requirements for the award of a PhD degree vary throughout the world and even from school to school. It is usually required for the student to hold an Honours degree or a Master's Degree with high academic standing, in order to be considered for a PhD program. In other countries such as the UK there is generally no such condition, though this varies by university and field.
In order to submit a successful PhD admission application, copies of academic transcripts, letters of recommendation, a research proposal, and a personal statement are often required. Most universities also invite for a special interview before admission. A candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed context.
Some universities in the non- English -speaking world have begun adopting similar standards to those of the anglophone Ph. A PhD student or candidate is conventionally required to study on campus under close supervision. With the popularity of distance education and e-learning technologies, some universities now accept students enrolled into a distance education part-time mode. In a " sandwich PhD" program, PhD candidates do not spend their entire study period at the same university. Instead, the PhD candidates spend the first and last periods of the program at their home universities, and in between conduct research at another institution or field research.
A PhD confirmation is a preliminary presentation or lecture that a PhD candidate presents to faculty and possibly other interested members.
Doctor of Philosophy
The confirmation lecture can be seen as a trial run for the final public defense, though faculty members at this stage can still largely influence the direction of the research. At the end of the lecture, the PhD candidate can be seen as "confirmed" — faculty members give their approval and trust that the study is well directed and will with high probability result in the candidate being successful.
In the United States, this is generally called advancing to Candidacy, the confirmation event being called the Candidacy Examination. A career in academia generally requires a PhD, though, in some countries, it is possible to reach relatively high positions without a doctorate. In North America, professors are increasingly being required to have a PhD, because the percentage of faculty with a PhD is used as a university ratings measure.
The motivation may also include increased salary , but in many cases, this is not the result. Research by Bernard H. Casey of the University of Warwick, U. While this is a small return to the individual or even an overall deficit when tuition and lost earnings during training are accounted for , he claims there are significant benefits to society for the extra research training.
A PhD is also required in some positions outside academia, such as research jobs in major international agencies. In some cases, the Executive Directors of some types of foundations may be expected to hold a PhD [ citation needed ]. A PhD is sometimes felt to be a necessary qualification in certain areas of employment, such as in foreign policy think-tanks: U. News wrote in that "[i]f having a master's degree at the minimum is de rigueur in Washington's foreign policy world, it is no wonder many are starting to feel that the PhD is a necessary escalation, another case of costly signaling to potential employers.
The Economist published an article in citing various criticisms against the state of Ph. These included a prediction by economist Richard B. According to the article, only the fastest developing countries e. China or Brazil have a shortage of PhDs. The US higher education system often offers little incentive to move students through Ph.
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To counter this problem, the United States introduced the Doctor of Arts degree in with seed money from the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The aim of the Doctor of Arts degree was to shorten the time needed to complete the degree by focusing on pedagogy over research, although the Doctor of Arts still contains a significant research component.
Germany is one of the few nations engaging these issues, and it has been doing so by reconceptualising Ph. This development can be seen in the extensive number of Ph.
To a lesser extent, the UK research councils have tackled the issue by introducing, since , the EngD. Mark C. Taylor opined in in Nature that total reform of Ph. In German-speaking nations; most Eastern European nations; successor states of the former Soviet Union; most parts of Africa, Asia, and many Spanish-speaking countries, the corresponding degree to a Doctor of Philosophy is simply called "Doctor" Doktor , and the subject area is distinguished by a Latin suffix e. Lit, D.
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Sc, LL. D, Doctorate or similar terms. However, it is important to note that programmes with a similar name to 'doctor' should only be included in ISCED level 8 if they satisfy the criteria described in Paragraph For international comparability purposes, the term 'doctoral or equivalent' is used to label ISCED level 8". In Argentina, the admission to a PhD program at public Argentine University requires the full completion of a Master's degree or a Licentiate degree. Non-Argentine Master's titles are generally accepted into a PhD program when the degree comes from a recognized university.
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While a significant portion of postgraduate students finance their tuition and living costs with teaching or research work at private and state-run institutions, international institutions, such as the Fulbright Program and the Organization of American States OAS , have been known to grant full scholarships for tuition with apportions for housing. Upon completion of at least two years' research and coursework as a graduate student, a candidate must demonstrate truthful and original contributions to his or her specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.
This Committee should be composed of examiners that are external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution. The academic degree of Doctor, respective to the correspondent field of science that the candidate has contributed with original and rigorous research, is received after a successful defense of the candidate's dissertation. Admission to a Ph. The standard requirement is a bachelor's degree with either first-class or upper second-class honors.
It is also possible for research master's degree students to 'upgrade' to Ph. RTPs are paid for a duration of 3 years, while a 6-month extension is usually possible upon citing delays out of the control of the student. Due to a continual increase in living costs, many Ph. Australian citizens, permanent residents, and New Zealand citizens are not charged course fees for their Ph.
Completion requirements vary. Most Australian Ph.